Dr. Toby Slade

Dr. Toby Slade

Associate Professor

University of Tokyo

 

Modernism

This course will focus on reading about the most significant movements in European Modernism in the visual and plastic arts. Starting with the origins of Modernism in the French Revolution it will explore Romanticism, Realism, Impressionism and Post-Impressionism, before looking in detail at the twentieth century movements of Fauvism, Cubism, Futurism, Suprematism, Dada, Surrealism, De Stijl, the Bauhaus, Constructivism and Abstract Expressionism. It will also touch on Postmodern Art and Modernism outside of Europe.

Schedule:

  1. Introduction, Key-terms, Kant and Early Modernism

  2. The Nineteenth Century: Expressionism, Impressionism & Post-Impressionism

  3. Fauvism

  4. Cubism

  5. Futurism

  6. Dada

  7. Surrealism

  8. Suprematism & Constructivism

  9. The Bauhaus and de Stijl

  10. Abstract Expressionism

  11. Superman’s Costume and Sartorial Modernism

  12. Postmodernism

  13. Slide Test

Please Note:

  • This course will be taught entirely in English. Presentations, discussions, and reports will also be expected to be entirely in English.

  • This is a reading-oriented course and there will be around 8 pages of English reading each week.

  • Each week small groups present their thoughts on the discussion questions.

  • Missing more than three classes without explanation will result in an absent-fail.

  • Plagiarism of any kind will result in automatic failure of the class.

Grading:

  • Presentation of small group discussions 30%

  • Slide Test (in the final class) 30%

  • Reading report (500 words) 40%

 

Reading Sources:

Robert Hughes, The Shock of the New, London: Thames and Hudson, 1991. First Published 1980. Matei Călinescu, Five Faces of Modernity, Durham: Duke University Press, 1977.
Ernst Gombrich,
The Story of Art, London; Phaidon, 1995. First Published, 1962.
John Clark,
Modernity in Asia Art, Sydney: Wild Peony, 1993.

Nikos Stangos, Concepts of Modern Art: From Fauvism to Postmodernism, London: Thames and Hudson, 1994. First Published 1974.
Michael Carter, “Superman’s Costume”, in
Form/Work, 4, 2000.
Clement Greenberg, The Collected Essays and Criticism Vol. 4, ed. John O
ʼBrian, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993. First Published 1960. 

A Course Reader with all the weekly readings will be available in the first class.

Reader Contents:

Course outline and information                            
The Two Modernities (Matei Călinescu)                        
The Two Modernities Questions & Discussion                    
The Late Nineteenth Century (Ernst Gombrich)                    
The Late Nineteenth Century Questions & Discussion                
Fauvism (Robert Hughes: The Landscape of Pleasure)                 
Fauvism Questions & Discussion                            
Cubism (Robert Hughes: The Mechanical Paradise)                
Cubism Questions & Discussion                            
Futurism (Robert Hughes: The Mechanical Paradise)                
Futurism Questions & Discussion                        
Dada (Robert Hughes: The Faces of Power)                    
Dada Questions & Discussion                            
Surrealism (Robert Hughes: The Threshold of Liberty)                
Surrealism Questions & Discussion                        
Suprematism & Constructivism (Robert Hughes: The Faces of Power)        
Suprematism & Constructivism Questions & Discussion                
The Bauhaus & de Stijl (Robert Hughes: Trouble in Utopia)            
The Bauhaus & de Stijl Questions & Discussion                    
Abstract Expressionism (Robert Hughes: The View from the Edge)        
Abstract Expressionism Questions & Discussion                    
Superman’s Costume (Michael Carter)                         
Superman’s Costume Questions & Discussion                    
Postmodernism (Robert Hughes: The Future that Was)                
Postmodernism Questions & Discussion                        
Artist & Other Characters Notes                        
Modernist Painting (Clement Greenberg)     

Video Resources: 

The readings by Robert Hughes from his book, The Shock of the New, were also made into a television series.

The Mechanical Paradise

The Powers That Be

The Landscape of Pleasure

Trouble in Utopia

The Threshold of Liberty

The View from the Edge

Culture as Nature

The Future that Was

Images 

In Search of New Standards: The Late Nineteenth Century

Paul Cézanne, Mont Sainte-Victoire, c. 1887, Courtauld Institute of Art.

Paul Cézanne, Mont Sainte-Victoire, c. 1887, Courtauld Institute of Art.

Paul Cézanne, Mont Sainte-Victoire seen from Bellevue, c. 1886, Barnes Foundation, Philadelphia.

Paul Cézanne, Mont Sainte-Victoire seen from Bellevue, c. 1886, Barnes Foundation, Philadelphia.

Paul Cézanne, Jas de Bouffan, 1876, Hermitage Museum.

Paul Cézanne, Jas de Bouffan, 1876, Hermitage Museum.

Paul Cézanne, Les Grandes Baigneuses, 1898–1905, Philadelphia Museum of Art.

Paul Cézanne, Les Grandes Baigneuses, 1898–1905, Philadelphia Museum of Art.

Paul Cézanne, Still Life with a Curtain, c. 1898, Hermitage Museum.

Paul Cézanne, Still Life with a Curtain, c. 1898, Hermitage Museum.

Paul Cézanne, L'Estaque, 1883–1885, Private Collection.

Paul Cézanne, L'Estaque, 1883–1885, Private Collection.

Paul Cézanne, Self-portrait with Beret, 1898–1900, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

Paul Cézanne, Self-portrait with Beret, 1898–1900, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

Paul Cézanne, Portrait of Madame Cézanne with Loosened Hair, 1883-1887, Philadelphia Museum of Art.

Paul Cézanne, Portrait of Madame Cézanne with Loosened Hair, 1883-1887, Philadelphia Museum of Art.

Paul Cézanne, Montagnes en Provence (Mountains in Provence), 1886-90, National Gallery, London.  

Paul Cézanne, Montagnes en Provence (Mountains in Provence), 1886-90, National Gallery, London.

 

Paul Cézanne, Fruit Bowl, Glass and Apples, 1879–80, Museum of Modern Art, New York. 

Paul Cézanne, Fruit Bowl, Glass and Apples, 1879–80, Museum of Modern Art, New York. 

Henri Toulouse-Lautrec, At the Moulin Rouge, 1895, Art Institute of Chicago.

Henri Toulouse-Lautrec, At the Moulin Rouge, 1895, Art Institute of Chicago.

Giuseppe Castiglione, View of the Grand Salon Carré in the Louvre, 1861. Louvre, Paris. 

Giuseppe Castiglione, View of the Grand Salon Carré in the Louvre, 1861. Louvre, Paris. 

Filippo Brunelleschi, Florence Cathedral Dome, 1418 - 1461.

Filippo Brunelleschi, Florence Cathedral Dome, 1418 - 1461.

Victor Horta, Hôtel Tassel, 1893-1894. Brussels.

Victor Horta, Hôtel Tassel, 1893-1894. Brussels.

Victor Horta, Hôtel Tassel, 1893-1894. Brussels.

Victor Horta, Hôtel Tassel, 1893-1894. Brussels.

Victor Horta, Hôtel Tassel, 1893-1894. Brussels.

Victor Horta, Hôtel Tassel, 1893-1894. Brussels.

Gustav Klimt, Adele Bloch-Bauer 1, 1907, Neue Galerie New York.

Gustav Klimt, Adele Bloch-Bauer 1, 1907, Neue Galerie New York.

Théophile Steinlen, La tournée du Chat Noir avec Rodolphe Salis, 1896, Zimmerli Art Museum at Rutgers University.

Théophile Steinlen, La tournée du Chat Noir avec Rodolphe Salis, 1896, Zimmerli Art Museum at Rutgers University.

Théophile Steinlen, La tournée du Chat Noir avec Rodolphe Salis, 1896, Zimmerli Art Museum at Rutgers University.

Théophile Steinlen, La tournée du Chat Noir avec Rodolphe Salis, 1896, Zimmerli Art Museum at Rutgers University.

Claude Monet, Impression, soleil levant (Impression, Sunrise), 1872, Musée Marmottan Monet, Paris.  

Claude Monet, Impression, soleil levant (Impression, Sunrise), 1872, Musée Marmottan Monet, Paris.

 

Édouard Manet, A Bar at the Folies-Bergère (Un Bar aux Folies-Bergère), 1882, Courtauld Institute of Art.

Édouard Manet, A Bar at the Folies-Bergère (Un Bar aux Folies-Bergère), 1882, Courtauld Institute of Art.

Édouard Manet, The Luncheon on the Grass (Le déjeuner sur l'herbe), 1863, Musée d'Orsay. 

Édouard Manet, The Luncheon on the Grass (Le déjeuner sur l'herbe), 1863, Musée d'Orsay. 

Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Dance at Le Moulin de la Galette (Bal du moulin de la Galette), 1876, Musée d'Orsay.

Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Dance at Le Moulin de la Galette (Bal du moulin de la Galette), 1876, Musée d'Orsay.

Camille Pissarro, Boulevard Montmartre, 1897, the Hermitage, Saint Petersburg.

Camille Pissarro, Boulevard Montmartre, 1897, the Hermitage, Saint Petersburg.

Camille Pissarro, Hay Harvest at Éragny, 1901, National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario.

Camille Pissarro, Hay Harvest at Éragny, 1901, National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario.

Claude Monet, Haystacks, (sunset), 1890–1891, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

Claude Monet, Haystacks, (sunset), 1890–1891, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

Claude Monet, Water Lilies, 1916, The National Museum of Western Art, Tokyo.

Claude Monet, Water Lilies, 1916, The National Museum of Western Art, Tokyo.

Edgar Degas, Stage Rehearsal, 1878–1879, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

Edgar Degas, Stage Rehearsal, 1878–1879, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

Edgar Degas, Three Dancers in Yellow Skirts, c. 1891, The Detroit Institute of Arts.

Edgar Degas, Three Dancers in Yellow Skirts, c. 1891, The Detroit Institute of Arts.

Camille Pissarro, Children on a Farm, 1887. Private Collection.

Camille Pissarro, Children on a Farm, 1887. Private Collection.

Nicolas Poussin, Et in Arcadia ego (Les Bergers d’Arcadie), late 1630s, Louvre, Paris.  

Nicolas Poussin, Et in Arcadia ego (Les Bergers d’Arcadie), late 1630s, Louvre, Paris.

 

Nicolas Poussin, A Dance to the Music of Time, 1640, The Wallace Collection. 

Nicolas Poussin, A Dance to the Music of Time, 1640, The Wallace Collection. 

Nicolas Poussin, Venus, a Faun and Putti, 1630s, The Hermitage Museum, St-Petersburg.

Nicolas Poussin, Venus, a Faun and Putti, 1630s, The Hermitage Museum, St-Petersburg.

Nicolas Poussin, The Inspiration of the Poet (detail), c. 1630, Louvre, Paris. 

Nicolas Poussin, The Inspiration of the Poet (detail), c. 1630, Louvre, Paris. 

Sandro Botticelli, Annunciation, 1489–1490, Uffizi Gallery, Florence. 

Sandro Botticelli, Annunciation, 1489–1490, Uffizi Gallery, Florence. 

Tommaso Masaccio, The Tribute Money, 1425, Brancacci Chapel, Florence.

Tommaso Masaccio, The Tribute Money, 1425, Brancacci Chapel, Florence.

Raphael, Portrait of Baldassare Castiglione, c. 1515. Louvre, Paris. 

Raphael, Portrait of Baldassare Castiglione, c. 1515. Louvre, Paris. 

Édouard Manet, Monet working on his boat, 1874, Neue Pinakothek, Munich. 

Édouard Manet, Monet working on his boat, 1874, Neue Pinakothek, Munich. 

Willem Kalf, Still Life with the Drinking-Horn of the Saint Sebastian Archers' Guild, Lobster and Glasses, 1653, National Gallery, London. 

Willem Kalf, Still Life with the Drinking-Horn of the Saint Sebastian Archers' Guild, Lobster and Glasses, 1653, National Gallery, London. 

Georges Seurat, Bathers at Asnières, 1884, National Gallery, London.

Georges Seurat, Bathers at Asnières, 1884, National Gallery, London.

Georges Seurat, Sunday Afternoon on the Island of la Grande Jatte, 1886, Art Institute of Chicago.   

Georges Seurat, Sunday Afternoon on the Island of la Grande Jatte, 1886, Art Institute of Chicago. 

 

Georges Seurat, Bridge of Courbevoie, 1886-1887, Courtauld Institute, London.

Georges Seurat, Bridge of Courbevoie, 1886-1887, Courtauld Institute, London.

Vincent van Gogh, Self portrait as a painter, 1888, Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam.

Vincent van Gogh, Self portrait as a painter, 1888, Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam.

Vincent van Gogh, Courtesan (after Eisen), 1887, Van Gogh Museum.

Vincent van Gogh, Courtesan (after Eisen), 1887, Van Gogh Museum.

Vincent van Gogh, Portrait of Père Tanguy, 1887, Musée Rodin.

Vincent van Gogh, Portrait of Père Tanguy, 1887, Musée Rodin.

Vincent van Gogh, Bedroom in Arles, 1888, Van Gogh Museum.

Vincent van Gogh, Bedroom in Arles, 1888, Van Gogh Museum.

Vincent van Gogh, Chair, 1888, National Gallery, London.

Vincent van Gogh, Chair, 1888, National Gallery, London.

Vincent van Gogh, Wheat Field with Cypresses, 1889, National Gallery, London.

Vincent van Gogh, Wheat Field with Cypresses, 1889, National Gallery, London.

Vincent van Gogh, Still Life: Vase with Twelve Sunflowers, 1888, Neue Pinakothek, Munich.

Vincent van Gogh, Still Life: Vase with Twelve Sunflowers, 1888, Neue Pinakothek, Munich.

Vincent van Gogh, The Café Terrace on the Place du Forum, Arles, at Night, 1888, Kröller-Müller Museum, The Netherlands.

Vincent van Gogh, The Café Terrace on the Place du Forum, Arles, at Night, 1888, Kröller-Müller Museum, The Netherlands.

Vincent van Gogh, The Starry Night, 1889, The Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Vincent van Gogh, The Starry Night, 1889, The Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Tintoretto, Saint George and the Dragon, 1555 - 1558, National Gallery, London.

Tintoretto, Saint George and the Dragon, 1555 - 1558, National Gallery, London.

Frans Hals, Pieter van den Broecke, 1633, Kenwood House.

Frans Hals, Pieter van den Broecke, 1633, Kenwood House.

Eugène Delacroix. Women of Algiers in their Apartment, 1834, Louvre, Paris.

Eugène Delacroix. Women of Algiers in their Apartment, 1834, Louvre, Paris.

Eugène Delacroix, Death of Sardanapalus, 1827, Philadelphia Museum of Art.

Eugène Delacroix, Death of Sardanapalus, 1827, Philadelphia Museum of Art.

John Everett Millais, Ophelia, 1851, Tate Britain. 

John Everett Millais, Ophelia, 1851, Tate Britain. 

Paul Gauguin, Self portrait, 1903, Kunstmuseum, Basel.


Paul Gauguin, Self portrait, 1903, Kunstmuseum, Basel.

Paul Gauguin, Day Dreaming, 1897, Courtauld Institute, London.

Paul Gauguin, Day Dreaming, 1897, Courtauld Institute, London.

Paul Gauguin, Two Tahitian Women, 1899, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. 

Paul Gauguin, Two Tahitian Women, 1899, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. 

Paul Gauguin, Nafea Faa Ipoipo (When Will You Marry?), 1892, Private Collection. 

Paul Gauguin, Nafea Faa Ipoipo (When Will You Marry?), 1892, Private Collection. 

Paul Gauguin, Spirit of the Dead Watching, 1892, Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo. 

Paul Gauguin, Spirit of the Dead Watching, 1892, Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo. 

Paul Gauguin, Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going?, 1897, Boston Museum of Fine Arts.

Paul Gauguin, Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going?, 1897, Boston Museum of Fine Arts.

Pierre Bonnard, At the Table, 1899. 

Pierre Bonnard, At the Table, 1899. 

Ferdinand Hodler, Lake Thun, 1905. 

Ferdinand Hodler, Lake Thun, 1905. 

Aubrey Beardsley, The Dancers Reward, from Salomé, 1893.

Aubrey Beardsley, The Dancers Reward, from Salomé, 1893.

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Ambassadeurs – Aristide Bruant, 1892, Private Collection.

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Ambassadeurs – Aristide Bruant, 1892, Private Collection.

James Abbott McNeill Whistler, Nocturne: Blue and Gold - Old Battersea Bridge, 1872, Tate Britain, London.

James Abbott McNeill Whistler, Nocturne: Blue and Gold - Old Battersea Bridge, 1872, Tate Britain, London.

Fauvism

The Landscape of Pleasure

Henri Matisse, Le bonheur de vivre (The Joy of Life), 1905-06, The Barnes Foundation, Philadelphia.

Henri Matisse, Le bonheur de vivre (The Joy of Life), 1905-06, The Barnes Foundation, Philadelphia.

Édouard Manet, Portrait of Stéphane Mallarmé, 1876, Musée d'Orsay, Paris. 

Édouard Manet, Portrait of Stéphane Mallarmé, 1876, Musée d'Orsay, Paris. 

Donatello, David, 1430 - 1432, Bargello Palace and Museum, Florence.

Donatello, David, 1430 - 1432, Bargello Palace and Museum, Florence.

Henri Matisse, Woman with a Hat (Femme au chapeau), 1905, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art.

Henri Matisse, Woman with a Hat (Femme au chapeau), 1905, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art.

Henri Matisse, Les toits de Collioure (Roofs of Collioure), 1905, The Hermitage, St. Petersburg.

Henri Matisse, Les toits de Collioure (Roofs of Collioure), 1905, The Hermitage, St. Petersburg.

Maurice de Vlaminck, The Seine at Chatou, 1906, Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Maurice de Vlaminck, The Seine at Chatou, 1906, Metropolitan Museum of Art.

André Derain, Le séchage des voiles (The Drying Sails), 1905, Pushkin Museum, Moscow.

André Derain, Le séchage des voiles (The Drying Sails), 1905, Pushkin Museum, Moscow.

André Derain, Charing Cross Bridge, London, 1906, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.

André Derain, Charing Cross Bridge, London, 1906, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.

André Derain, La jetée à L'Estaque (The pier in L'Estaque), 1906, Private Collection, Strasbourg.

André Derain, La jetée à L'Estaque (The pier in L'Estaque), 1906, Private Collection, Strasbourg.

Raoul Dufy, Paysage de Provence, 1905, Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris.

Raoul Dufy, Paysage de Provence, 1905, Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris.

Raoul Dufy, Les Barques à Martigues, 1908, Musée National d’Art Moderne, Paris.

Raoul Dufy, Les Barques à Martigues, 1908, Musée National d’Art Moderne, Paris.

Georges Braque, L'Olivier près de l'Estaque (The Olive tree near l'Estoque), 1906, Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris.

Georges Braque, L'Olivier près de l'Estaque (The Olive tree near l'Estoque), 1906, Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris.

Kees van Dongen, Femme au grand chapeau (Woman With a Large Hat), 1906, Galerie Daniel Malingue.

Kees van Dongen, Femme au grand chapeau (Woman With a Large Hat), 1906, Galerie Daniel Malingue.

Henri Manguin, Baigneuse (Woman Bather), 1906, Pushkin Museum, Moscow.

Henri Manguin, Baigneuse (Woman Bather), 1906, Pushkin Museum, Moscow.

Henri Manguin, Le Rocher (La Naïade, Cavalière), 1906, Private Collection.

Henri Manguin, Le Rocher (La Naïade, Cavalière), 1906, Private Collection.

André Derain, The Turning Road, L’Estaque, 1906, Museum of Fine Arts, Houston.

André Derain, The Turning Road, L’Estaque, 1906, Museum of Fine Arts, Houston.

Paul Gauguin, Nave, Nave Moe (Miraculous Source), 1894, Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg.

Paul Gauguin, Nave, Nave Moe (Miraculous Source), 1894, Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg.

Raoul Dufy, The Three Umbrellas, 1906, Museum of Fine Arts, Houston.

Raoul Dufy, The Three Umbrellas, 1906, Museum of Fine Arts, Houston.

Kees van Dongen, Les Lutteuses du Tamarin (The Wrestlers of Tamarin), 1907-08, Nouveau Musée National de Monaco.

Kees van Dongen, Les Lutteuses du Tamarin (The Wrestlers of Tamarin), 1907-08, Nouveau Musée National de Monaco.

Maurice de Vlaminck, The Orchard, 1905, Private Collection.

Maurice de Vlaminck, The Orchard, 1905, Private Collection.

Henri Matisse, Open Window, Collioure, 1905, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.

Henri Matisse, Open Window, Collioure, 1905, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.

Henri Matisse, Landscape at Collioure, 1905, Museum of Modern Art, New York. 

Henri Matisse, Landscape at Collioure, 1905, Museum of Modern Art, New York. 

Henri Matisse, Luxe, Calme et Volupté (Luxury, calm and voluptuousness), 1904, Musée d'Orsay, Paris.

Henri Matisse, Luxe, Calme et Volupté (Luxury, calm and voluptuousness), 1904, Musée d'Orsay, Paris.

Georges Braque, The Viaduct at L'Estaque (Le Viaduc de l'Estaque), 1907-08, Minneapolis Institute of Arts.

Georges Braque, The Viaduct at L'Estaque (Le Viaduc de l'Estaque), 1907-08, Minneapolis Institute of Arts.

Georges Braque, Le Viaduc de L'Estaque (Viaduct at L'Estaque), 1908, Tel Aviv Museum of Art.

Georges Braque, Le Viaduc de L'Estaque (Viaduct at L'Estaque), 1908, Tel Aviv Museum of Art.

Georges Braque, Baigneuse (Le Grand Nu, Large Nude), 1908, Musée National d'Art Moderne, Centre Pompidou, Paris.

Georges Braque, Baigneuse (Le Grand Nu, Large Nude), 1908, Musée National d'Art Moderne, Centre Pompidou, Paris.

André Derain, Baigneuses (Esquisse), c.1908, Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris.

André Derain, Baigneuses (Esquisse), c.1908, Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris.

André Derain, La Table (The Table), 1911, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.  

André Derain, La Table (The Table), 1911, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

 

Maurice de Vlaminck, Town on the Bank of a Lake, c.1909, Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg.

Maurice de Vlaminck, Town on the Bank of a Lake, c.1909, Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg.

Kees van Dongen, Le sphinx, 1920, Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris.

Kees van Dongen, Le sphinx, 1920, Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris.

Henri Matisse, Blue Nude, 1907, Baltimore Museum of Art.

Henri Matisse, Blue Nude, 1907, Baltimore Museum of Art.

Paul Cézanne, Three Bathers, 1879-82, Petit Palais, Musée des Beaux-Arts de la Ville de Paris. Originally owned by Henri Matisse.

Paul Cézanne, Three Bathers, 1879-82, Petit Palais, Musée des Beaux-Arts de la Ville de Paris. Originally owned by Henri Matisse.

Paul Signac, In the Time of Harmony. The Golden Age is not in the Past, it is in the Future, 1893-95, Mairie de Montreuil, France.

Paul Signac, In the Time of Harmony. The Golden Age is not in the Past, it is in the Future, 1893-95, Mairie de Montreuil, France.

Henri Matisse, Portrait of Madame Matisse. The Green Line, 1905, Statens Museum for Kunst, Copenhagen.

Henri Matisse, Portrait of Madame Matisse. The Green Line, 1905, Statens Museum for Kunst, Copenhagen.

Henri Matisse, The Dance, 1910, Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg.

Henri Matisse, The Dance, 1910, Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg.

Henri Matisse, Music, 1910, Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg.

Henri Matisse, Music, 1910, Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg.

Cubism

The Mechanical Paradise

 

Pablo Picasso, Girl with a Mandolin (Fanny Tellier), 1910, Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Pablo Picasso, Girl with a Mandolin (Fanny Tellier), 1910, Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Benjamin West, Self-Portrait of Benjamin West, 1776, Baltimore Museum of Fine Art.  

Benjamin West, Self-Portrait of Benjamin West, 1776, Baltimore Museum of Fine Art.

 

Sir Joshua Reynolds, Sir Joseph Banks, 1773, National Portrait Gallery, London.

Sir Joshua Reynolds, Sir Joseph Banks, 1773, National Portrait Gallery, London.

William Hodges, A View of the Monuments of Easter Island, Rapanui, 1775.

William Hodges, A View of the Monuments of Easter Island, Rapanui, 1775.

The Discobolus of Myron, 460–450 BC, Original Lost, Roman Copy.

The Discobolus of Myron, 460–450 BC, Original Lost, Roman Copy.

Michelangelo, David, 1501-1504, Galleria dell'Accademia, Florence.

Michelangelo, David, 1501-1504, Galleria dell'Accademia, Florence.

Leonardo da Vinci, Vitruvian Man, 1492, Accademia of Venice.

Leonardo da Vinci, Vitruvian Man, 1492, Accademia of Venice.

Édouard Manet, Olympia, 1863, Musée d'Orsay, Paris.

Édouard Manet, Olympia, 1863, Musée d'Orsay, Paris.

Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, The Turkish Bath, 1862, Louvre Museum, Paris.

Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, The Turkish Bath, 1862, Louvre Museum, Paris.

Pablo Picasso, Les Demoiselles d’Avignon (The Young Ladies of Avignon), Originally titled: The Brothel of Avignon, 1907, Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Pablo Picasso, Les Demoiselles d’Avignon (The Young Ladies of Avignon), Originally titled: The Brothel of Avignon, 1907, Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Gabon Mahongwe Mask, Brooklyn Museum.

Gabon Mahongwe Mask, Brooklyn Museum.

Fang mask used for the ngil ceremony, an inquisitorial search for sorcerers, Gabon, 19th Century, Louvre Museum, Paris. 

Fang mask used for the ngil ceremony, an inquisitorial search for sorcerers, Gabon, 19th Century, Louvre Museum, Paris. 

Pablo Picasso, Head of a Sleeping Woman (Study for Nude with Drapery), 1907, The Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Pablo Picasso, Head of a Sleeping Woman (Study for Nude with Drapery), 1907, The Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Sandro Botticelli, Primavera (detail: The Three Graces), c. 1482, Uffizi Gallery, Florence.

Sandro Botticelli, Primavera (detail: The Three Graces), c. 1482, Uffizi Gallery, Florence.

Raphael, The Three Graces, 1504–1505, Musée Condé, Chantilly.

Raphael, The Three Graces, 1504–1505, Musée Condé, Chantilly.

El Greco, The Opening of the Fifth Seal, 1608–1614, Metropolitan Museum, New York.

El Greco, The Opening of the Fifth Seal, 1608–1614, Metropolitan Museum, New York.

El Greco, The Visitation, 1610-13, Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, DC. 

El Greco, The Visitation, 1610-13, Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, DC. 

Pablo Picasso, Study for Les Demoiselles d’Avignon, 1907, Kunstmuseum, Basle.

Pablo Picasso, Study for Les Demoiselles d’Avignon, 1907, Kunstmuseum, Basle.

Edgar Degas, The Client, 1879, Louvre Museum, Paris.

Edgar Degas, The Client, 1879, Louvre Museum, Paris.

Edgar Degas, The Serious Client, 1879, Private collection, London.

Edgar Degas, The Serious Client, 1879, Private collection, London.

Edgar Degas, Waiting for a Client, 1876-77, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

Edgar Degas, Waiting for a Client, 1876-77, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, The Salon of the Rue des Moulins, 1894, Musée Toulouse-Lautrec d'Albi, France.

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, The Salon of the Rue des Moulins, 1894, Musée Toulouse-Lautrec d'Albi, France.

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, The Medical Inspection at the Rue des Moulins Brothel, 1894, National Gallery of Art, Washington DC.

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, The Medical Inspection at the Rue des Moulins Brothel, 1894, National Gallery of Art, Washington DC.

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Reine de Joie, 1892, Musée Toulouse-Lautrec d'Albi, France.

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Reine de Joie, 1892, Musée Toulouse-Lautrec d'Albi, France.

Iberian female sculpture from 3rd or 2nd century BC.

Iberian female sculpture from 3rd or 2nd century BC.

Georges Braque, Baigneuse (Le Grand Nu, Large Nude), 1908, Musée National d'Art Moderne, Centre Pompidou, Paris.

Georges Braque, Baigneuse (Le Grand Nu, Large Nude), 1908, Musée National d'Art Moderne, Centre Pompidou, Paris.

Georges Braque, Plate and Fruit Dish, 1908, Private collection.

Georges Braque, Plate and Fruit Dish, 1908, Private collection.

Georges Braque, Fruit Dish, 1908–09, Moderna Museet, Stockholm.

Georges Braque, Fruit Dish, 1908–09, Moderna Museet, Stockholm.

Georges Braque, Still Life with Metronome, 1909, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. 

Georges Braque, Still Life with Metronome, 1909, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. 

Pablo Picasso, Still Life with a Bottle of Rum, 1911, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

Pablo Picasso, Still Life with a Bottle of Rum, 1911, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

Georges Braque, Violin and Candlestick, 1910, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art.

Georges Braque, Violin and Candlestick, 1910, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art.

Georges Braque, Houses at l'Estaque, 1908, Lille Métropole Museum of Modern, Contemporary and Outsider Art.

Georges Braque, Houses at l'Estaque, 1908, Lille Métropole Museum of Modern, Contemporary and Outsider Art.

Georges Braque, The Castle at Roche-Guyon, 1909, Moderna Museet, Stockholm.

Georges Braque, The Castle at Roche-Guyon, 1909, Moderna Museet, Stockholm.

Georges Braque, Castle at La Roche-Guyot, 1909, Van Abbemuseum, Eindhoven. 

Georges Braque, Castle at La Roche-Guyot, 1909, Van Abbemuseum, Eindhoven. 

Pablo Picasso, The Factory, Horta de Ebro, 1909, Hermitage, St. Petersburg.

Pablo Picasso, The Factory, Horta de Ebro, 1909, Hermitage, St. Petersburg.

Pablo Picasso, Guitar, 1912, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. 

Pablo Picasso, Guitar, 1912, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. 

Vladimir Tatlin, Monument to the Third International, 1919–20, Never built.

Vladimir Tatlin, Monument to the Third International, 1919–20, Never built.

David Smith, Ancient Household, 1945, bronze, Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden.

David Smith, Ancient Household, 1945, bronze, Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden.

Anthony Caro, National Gallery Ledge Piece, 1978.  

Anthony Caro, National Gallery Ledge Piece, 1978.

 

Georges Braque, The Portuguese, 1911, Kunstmuseum Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Georges Braque, The Portuguese, 1911, Kunstmuseum Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Pablo Picasso, Ma Jolie, 1911-12, Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Pablo Picasso, Ma Jolie, 1911-12, Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Georges Braque, Soda, 1912, Museum of Modern Art, New York.   

Georges Braque, Soda, 1912, Museum of Modern Art, New York. 

 

Pablo Picasso, Still Life with Chair Caning, 1912, Musée Picasso, Barcelona. 

Pablo Picasso, Still Life with Chair Caning, 1912, Musée Picasso, Barcelona. 

Futurism 

The Mechanical Paradise

Tato (Guglielmo Sansoni), Flying over the Coliseum in a Spiral (Spiraling), 1930, Guggenhein Museum, New York. 

Tato (Guglielmo Sansoni), Flying over the Coliseum in a Spiral (Spiraling), 1930, Guggenhein Museum, New York. 

Filoppo Marinettu, A Tumultuous Assembly, Foldout from Les mots en Liberté Futuristes, 1919.

Filoppo Marinettu, A Tumultuous Assembly, Foldout from Les mots en Liberté Futuristes, 1919.

Filippo Marinetti, After the Marne, Joffre Visited the Front by Car, 1915.

Filippo Marinetti, After the Marne, Joffre Visited the Front by Car, 1915.

Filippo Marinetti, Zang Tumb Tuuum: Adrianople October 1912, The Getty Research Institute, Los Angeles.

Filippo Marinetti, Zang Tumb Tuuum: Adrianople October 1912, The Getty Research Institute, Los Angeles.

Filippo Marinetti, Air Raid (n. 67), 1915–16, Collection of Luce Marinetti, Rome.

Filippo Marinetti, Air Raid (n. 67), 1915–16, Collection of Luce Marinetti, Rome.

Fortunato Depero, Skyscrapers and Tunnels, 1930, Guggenhein Museum, New York.  

Fortunato Depero, Skyscrapers and Tunnels, 1930, Guggenhein Museum, New York.

 

Francis Picabia, Young American Girl, The Dance, 1913, Musée National d'Art Moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris.

Francis Picabia, Young American Girl, The Dance, 1913, Musée National d'Art Moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris.

George Grosz, Daum marries her pedantic automaton George in May 1920, John Heartfield is very glad of it, 1920, Berlinische Galerie.

George Grosz, Daum marries her pedantic automaton George in May 1920, John Heartfield is very glad of it, 1920, Berlinische Galerie.

Vladimir Tatlin, Model, 1913, Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow.

Vladimir Tatlin, Model, 1913, Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow.

John Heartfield, Adolf, the Superman, Swallows Gold and Spouts Tin, 1932, The Getty Research Institute. 

John Heartfield, Adolf, the Superman, Swallows Gold and Spouts Tin, 1932, The Getty Research Institute. 

Giovanni Bellini, San Zaccaria Altarpiece, 1505, San Zaccaria, Venice.

Giovanni Bellini, San Zaccaria Altarpiece, 1505, San Zaccaria, Venice.

Marcel Duchamp, LHOOQ, 1919.  

Marcel Duchamp, LHOOQ, 1919.  

Tullio Crali, Forces of a Curve, 1930, The Museo di Arte Contemporanea di Trento e Rovereto.

Tullio Crali, Forces of a Curve, 1930, The Museo di Arte Contemporanea di Trento e Rovereto.

Giacomo Balla, Speeding Car (Study). Abstract Speed, 1913, Philadelphia Museum of Art.

Giacomo Balla, Speeding Car (Study). Abstract Speed, 1913, Philadelphia Museum of Art.

Giacomo Balla, Speeding Automobile, 1912, Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Giacomo Balla, Speeding Automobile, 1912, Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Benedetta (Benedetta Cappa Marinetti), Speeding Motorboat, 1923–24, Galleria d’Arte Moderna di Roma.  

Benedetta (Benedetta Cappa Marinetti), Speeding Motorboat, 1923–24, Galleria d’Arte Moderna di Roma.

 

Virgilio Marchi, Building Seen from a Veering Airplane, 1919–20, Private collection, Switzerland.

Virgilio Marchi, Building Seen from a Veering Airplane, 1919–20, Private collection, Switzerland.

The Winged Victory of Samothrace or The Winged Nike, c. 200–190 BC, Louvre, Paris.

The Winged Victory of Samothrace or The Winged Nike, c. 200–190 BC, Louvre, Paris.

Umberto Boccioni, Charge of the Lancers, 1915, Collection of Riccardo and Magda Jucker, Milan.

Umberto Boccioni, Charge of the Lancers, 1915, Collection of Riccardo and Magda Jucker, Milan.

Paul Signac, The Port of Rotterdam, 1907, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen.

Paul Signac, The Port of Rotterdam, 1907, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen.

Umberto Boccioni, The City Rises, 1910, Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Umberto Boccioni, The City Rises, 1910, Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Tintoretto (Jocopo Comin), Crucifixion, 1565, Scuola Grande di San Rocco, Venice.

Tintoretto (Jocopo Comin), Crucifixion, 1565, Scuola Grande di San Rocco, Venice.

Umberto Boccioni, Dynamism of a Cyclist, 1913, Peggy Guggenheim Collection, Venice.

Umberto Boccioni, Dynamism of a Cyclist, 1913, Peggy Guggenheim Collection, Venice.

Umberto Boccioni, Elasticity, 1912, Museo del Novecento.

Umberto Boccioni, Elasticity, 1912, Museo del Novecento.

Umberto Boccioni, Unique Forms of Continuity in Space, 1913, Museo del Novecento, Milan.

Umberto Boccioni, Unique Forms of Continuity in Space, 1913, Museo del Novecento, Milan.

Anton Giulio Bragaglia, Waving, 1911, Guggenhein Museum, New York.

Anton Giulio Bragaglia, Waving, 1911, Guggenhein Museum, New York.

Anton Giulio Bragaglia, The Typist, 1911, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

Anton Giulio Bragaglia, The Typist, 1911, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

Mario Bellusi, Modern Traffic in Ancient Rome, 1930, Guggenhein Museum, New York.

Mario Bellusi, Modern Traffic in Ancient Rome, 1930, Guggenhein Museum, New York.

Filippo Masoero, Descending over San Pietro, c. 1927–37, Touring Club Italiano Archive, Milan.

Filippo Masoero, Descending over San Pietro, c. 1927–37, Touring Club Italiano Archive, Milan.

Giacomo Balla, Dynamism of a Dog on a Leash, 1912, Albright-Knox Art Gallery.  

Giacomo Balla, Dynamism of a Dog on a Leash, 1912, Albright-Knox Art Gallery.

 

Umberto Boccioni, The Street Enters The House, 1911, Sprengel Museum, Hanover.

Umberto Boccioni, The Street Enters The House, 1911, Sprengel Museum, Hanover.

Robert Delaunay, Champs de Mars, La Tour rouge, 1911, Art Institute of Chicago.

Robert Delaunay, Champs de Mars, La Tour rouge, 1911, Art Institute of Chicago.

Gino Severini, Dynamic Hieroglyphic of the Bal Tabarin, 1912, Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Gino Severini, Dynamic Hieroglyphic of the Bal Tabarin, 1912, Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Jacob Epstein, The Rock Drill, 1913–1916, Original destroyed by the sculptor, Reconstructed in 1974, Tate Britain.

Jacob Epstein, The Rock Drill, 1913–1916, Original destroyed by the sculptor, Reconstructed in 1974, Tate Britain.

Francis Picabia, Portrait of an American Girl in a State of Nudity, 1915, Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Francis Picabia, Portrait of an American Girl in a State of Nudity, 1915, Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Marcel Duchamp, Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2, 1912, Philadelphia Museum of Art.

Marcel Duchamp, Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2, 1912, Philadelphia Museum of Art.

Osvaldo Peruzzi, Aeropittura, c.1934, Galleria d’Arte Moderna di Roma Capitale.

Osvaldo Peruzzi, Aeropittura, c.1934, Galleria d’Arte Moderna di Roma Capitale.

Tullio Crali, Upside Down Loop (Death Loop), 1938. Collection of Luce Marinetti, Rome.

Tullio Crali, Upside Down Loop (Death Loop), 1938. Collection of Luce Marinetti, Rome.

Tullio Crali, Before the Parachute Opens, 1939, Museo d’Arte Moderna e Contemporanea, Udine.

Tullio Crali, Before the Parachute Opens, 1939, Museo d’Arte Moderna e Contemporanea, Udine.

Dada

The Faces of Power

Theo van Doesburg and Kurt Schwitters, Kleine Dada Soirée, 1922, Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Theo van Doesburg and Kurt Schwitters, Kleine Dada Soirée, 1922, Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Johannes Baader, The Author of the Book "Fourteen Letters of Christ" in His Home, 1920, Museum of Modern Art, New York.  

Johannes Baader, The Author of the Book "Fourteen Letters of Christ" in His Home, 1920, Museum of Modern Art, New York.  

Hans Richter, Visionary Self-Portrait, 1917, National Gallery of Art, Washington DC.   

Hans Richter, Visionary Self-Portrait, 1917, National Gallery of Art, Washington DC. 

 

Jean (Hans) Arp, Untitled (Collage with Squares Arranged according to the Laws of Chance), 1917, Museum of Modern Art, New York.    

Jean (Hans) Arp, Untitled (Collage with Squares Arranged according to the Laws of Chance), 1917, Museum of Modern Art, New York.  

 

Jean (Hans) Arp, Mustache Hat, 1923, Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Jean (Hans) Arp, Mustache Hat, 1923, Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Jean (Hans) Arp, A Navel, 1923, Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Jean (Hans) Arp, A Navel, 1923, Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Jean (Hans) Arp, Untitled (Collage with Squares Arranged according to the Laws of Chance), 1917, Museum of Modern Art, New York.  

Jean (Hans) Arp, Untitled (Collage with Squares Arranged according to the Laws of Chance), 1917, Museum of Modern Art, New York.  

Jean (Hans) Arp, Shirt Front and Fork (painted wood), 1922, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.

Jean (Hans) Arp, Shirt Front and Fork (painted wood), 1922, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.

Jean (Hans) Arp, Automatic Drawing, 1917-18 (inscribed 1916), Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Jean (Hans) Arp, Automatic Drawing, 1917-18 (inscribed 1916), Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Man Ray, Dessin (Drawing), published on page 43 of Der Sturm, Volume 13, Number 3, 5 March 1922.

Man Ray, Dessin (Drawing), published on page 43 of Der Sturm, Volume 13, Number 3, 5 March 1922.

Jean (Hans) Arp, The Navel Bottle, 1923, Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Jean (Hans) Arp, The Navel Bottle, 1923, Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Kurt Schnitters, Das Undbild, 1919, Staatsgalerie Stuttgart.

Kurt Schnitters, Das Undbild, 1919, Staatsgalerie Stuttgart.

Kurt Schwitters, Merz 50 Composition, 1922, Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest.

Kurt Schwitters, Merz 50 Composition, 1922, Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest.

Kurt Schwitters, The Merzbau (Cathedral of Erotic Misery), 1923-1933, Hanover (Destroyed in an Air Raid). Installation covering six (or possibly more) rooms of Schwitters’ family house in Hanover.

Kurt Schwitters, The Merzbau (Cathedral of Erotic Misery), 1923-1933, Hanover (Destroyed in an Air Raid).
Installation covering six (or possibly more) rooms of Schwitters’ family house in Hanover.

Marcel Duchamp, In Advance of the Broken Arm, 1964 (Reconstruction), Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Marcel Duchamp, In Advance of the Broken Arm, 1964 (Reconstruction), Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Marcel Duchamp, Bicycle Wheel, 1951 (Reconstruction), Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Marcel Duchamp, Bicycle Wheel, 1951 (Reconstruction), Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Marcel Duchamp, Fountain, 1917. Original Lost. 

Marcel Duchamp, Fountain, 1917. Original Lost. 

William Orpen, The Signing of Peace in the Hall of Mirrors, Versailles, 28th June 1919, Imperial War Museum, London. 

William Orpen, The Signing of Peace in the Hall of Mirrors, Versailles, 28th June 1919, Imperial War Museum, London. 

Hannah Höch, Cut with the Dada Kitchen Knife through the Last Weimar Beer-Belly Cultural Epoch in Germany, 1919, Berlin State Museum.

Hannah Höch, Cut with the Dada Kitchen Knife through the Last Weimar Beer-Belly Cultural Epoch in Germany, 1919, Berlin State Museum.

Raoul Hausmann, Mechanical Head (The Spirit of Our Age), c. 1920, National Museum of Art, Washington DC.

Raoul Hausmann, Mechanical Head (The Spirit of Our Age), c. 1920, National Museum of Art, Washington DC.

Raoul Hausmann, ABCD (self-portrait), 1923–24, National Museum of Art, Washington DC.

Raoul Hausmann, ABCD (self-portrait), 1923–24, National Museum of Art, Washington DC.

Adolf Hitler, The Courtyard of the Old Residency in Munich, 1914.

Adolf Hitler, The Courtyard of the Old Residency in Munich, 1914.

Franz Marc, Fate of the Animals, 1913, Kunstmuseum, Basel.

Franz Marc, Fate of the Animals, 1913, Kunstmuseum, Basel.

Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Self-Portrait as a Soldier, 1915, Allen Memorial Art Museum, Oberlin College, Ohio.

Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Self-Portrait as a Soldier, 1915, Allen Memorial Art Museum, Oberlin College, Ohio.

Max Ernst, Murdering Airplane, 1920, Private collection.

Max Ernst, Murdering Airplane, 1920, Private collection.

Hannah Hoch, Pretty Maiden, 1920, Private Collection.

Hannah Hoch, Pretty Maiden, 1920, Private Collection.

Otto Dix, Cardplaying War-Cripples, 1920, Staatliche Museen, Berlin.

Otto Dix, Cardplaying War-Cripples, 1920, Staatliche Museen, Berlin.

George Grosz, Republican Automatons, 1920, Museum of Modern Art, New York. 

George Grosz, Republican Automatons, 1920, Museum of Modern Art, New York. 

Rudolf Schlichter, The Rooftop Studio, c.1922, Gallery Nierendorf, Berlin.

Rudolf Schlichter, The Rooftop Studio, c.1922, Gallery Nierendorf, Berlin.

Natalya Goncharova, The Laundry, 1913, Tate Gallery, London. 

Natalya Goncharova, The Laundry, 1913, Tate Gallery, London. 

Marc Chagall, Self-Portrait with Seven Fingers, 1913, Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam.

Marc Chagall, Self-Portrait with Seven Fingers, 1913, Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam.

Surrealism

The Threshold of Liberty

Salvador Dali, The Persistence of Memory, 1931, Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Salvador Dali, The Persistence of Memory, 1931, Museum of Modern Art, New York.

André Masson. Automatic Drawing. 1924, Museum of Modern Art, New York.

André Masson. Automatic Drawing. 1924, Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Guillaume Apollinaire, Calligram, 1920.

Guillaume Apollinaire, Calligram, 1920.

Francisco Goya, Witches' Sabbath (The Great He-Goat), 1821–23, Museo del Prado, Madrid.

Francisco Goya, Witches' Sabbath (The Great He-Goat), 1821–23, Museo del Prado, Madrid.

Francisco Goya, The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters, c. 1799.

Francisco Goya, The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters, c. 1799.

Francisco Goya, Witches' Flight, 1797–98. Museo del Prado, Madrid. 

Francisco Goya, Witches' Flight, 1797–98. Museo del Prado, Madrid. 

Yves Tanguy, Indefinite Divisibility, 1942, Albright Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, New York.

Yves Tanguy, Indefinite Divisibility, 1942, Albright Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, New York.

Max Ernst, The Elephant Celebes, 1921, Tate, London.

Max Ernst, The Elephant Celebes, 1921, Tate, London.

Giorgio de Chirico, The Red Tower, 1913, Guggenheim Museum, New York. 

Giorgio de Chirico, The Red Tower, 1913, Guggenheim Museum, New York. 

Giorgio de Chirico, The Evil Genius of a King, 1914–15, Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Giorgio de Chirico, The Evil Genius of a King, 1914–15, Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Giorgio de Chirico, The Song of Love, 1914, Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Giorgio de Chirico, The Song of Love, 1914, Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Gustave Courbet, A Burial at Ornans, 1849–50, Musee d'Orsay, Paris.

Gustave Courbet, A Burial at Ornans, 1849–50, Musee d'Orsay, Paris.

Jacques-Louis David, The Death of Socrates, 1787, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. 

Jacques-Louis David, The Death of Socrates, 1787, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. 

Henry Fuseli, The Nightmare, 1781, Detroit Institute of Arts.

Henry Fuseli, The Nightmare, 1781, Detroit Institute of Arts.

Henry Fuseli, The Night-Hag visiting the Lapland Witches, 1796, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. 

Henry Fuseli, The Night-Hag visiting the Lapland Witches, 1796, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. 

Henry Fuseli, Odysseus in front of Scylla and Charybdis, 1794–1796, Kunsthaus Aarau, Switzerland.

Henry Fuseli, Odysseus in front of Scylla and Charybdis, 1794–1796, Kunsthaus Aarau, Switzerland.

Henry Fuseli, Lady Macbeth Seizing the Daggers, 1810–12, Tate Britain. 

Henry Fuseli, Lady Macbeth Seizing the Daggers, 1810–12, Tate Britain. 

Henry Fuseli, Titania and Bottom, c. 1790, Tate Britain. 

Henry Fuseli, Titania and Bottom, c. 1790, Tate Britain. 

William Blake, The Great Red Dragon and the Woman Clothed with Sun, 1805, National Gallery of Art, Washington DC. 

William Blake, The Great Red Dragon and the Woman Clothed with Sun, 1805, National Gallery of Art, Washington DC. 

John Martin, The Great Day of His Wrath, c. 1853, Tate Britain. 

John Martin, The Great Day of His Wrath, c. 1853, Tate Britain. 

Richard Dadd, The Fairy Feller's Master-Stroke, 1855–64, Tate Gallery, London.

Richard Dadd, The Fairy Feller's Master-Stroke, 1855–64, Tate Gallery, London.

Eugène Delacroix, Horse Frightened by a Storm, 1824, Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest.

Eugène Delacroix, Horse Frightened by a Storm, 1824, Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest.

Théodore Géricault, Heroic Landscape with Fishermen, 1818, New Pinakothek, Munich.

Théodore Géricault, Heroic Landscape with Fishermen, 1818, New Pinakothek, Munich.

Philipp Otto Runge, Morning, 1808, Kunsthalle, Hamburg.

Philipp Otto Runge, Morning, 1808, Kunsthalle, Hamburg.

Caspar David Friedrich, The Abbey in the Oakwood, 1808–10, Alte Nationalgalerie, Berlin. 

Caspar David Friedrich, The Abbey in the Oakwood, 1808–10, Alte Nationalgalerie, Berlin. 

Odilon Redon, Butterflies, c.1910, Museum of Modern Art, New York. 

Odilon Redon, Butterflies, c.1910, Museum of Modern Art, New York. 

Gustave Moreau, Venus Rising from the Sea, 1866, Israel Museum.

Gustave Moreau, Venus Rising from the Sea, 1866, Israel Museum.

Gustave Moreau, The Apparition, c.1876, Musée d'Orsay, Paris.

Gustave Moreau, The Apparition, c.1876, Musée d'Orsay, Paris.

Gustave Moreau, The Chimera, 1867, Fogg Art Museum, Harvard. 

Gustave Moreau, The Chimera, 1867, Fogg Art Museum, Harvard. 

Giorgio de Chirico, The Enigma of a Day, 1914, Museum of Modern Art, New York. 

Giorgio de Chirico, The Enigma of a Day, 1914, Museum of Modern Art, New York. 

Max Klinger, A Glove: Action, 1881. 

Max Klinger, A Glove: Action, 1881. 

Max Klinger, A Glove: Rescue, 1881. 

Max Klinger, A Glove: Rescue, 1881. 

Max Klinger, A Glove: Triumph, 1881. 

Max Klinger, A Glove: Triumph, 1881. 

Max Klinger, A Glove: Cupid, 1881. 

Max Klinger, A Glove: Cupid, 1881. 

Salvador Dalí, Lobster Telephone (also known as Aphrodisiac Telephone), 1936, Tate Liverpool.

Salvador Dalí, Lobster Telephone (also known as Aphrodisiac Telephone), 1936, Tate Liverpool.

Salvador Dalí, The Great Masturbator, 1929, Reina Sofía, Madrid.

Salvador Dalí, The Great Masturbator, 1929, Reina Sofía, Madrid.

Salvador Dalí, The Accommodations of Desire, 1929, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

Salvador Dalí, The Accommodations of Desire, 1929, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

Jean-Louis-Ernest Meissonier, Napoleon and his staff returning from Soissons after the Battle of Laon 1814, 1864, Musée d'Orsay, Paris. 

Jean-Louis-Ernest Meissonier, Napoleon and his staff returning from Soissons after the Battle of Laon
1814
, 1864, Musée d'Orsay, Paris. 

Jean-Louis-Ernest Meissonier, The Marchioness of Manzanedo, 1872, Prado Museum, Madrid.

Jean-Louis-Ernest Meissonier, The Marchioness of Manzanedo, 1872, Prado Museum, Madrid.

Salvador Dalí, Suburbs of a Paranoiac Critical Town (Afternoon on the Outskirts of European History), 1936.

Salvador Dalí, Suburbs of a Paranoiac Critical Town (Afternoon on the Outskirts of European History), 1936.

Giuseppe Arcimboldo, Rudolf II as Vertumnus, the Roman God of the Seasons, c. 1590-1, Skokloster Castle, Sweden.

Giuseppe Arcimboldo, Rudolf II as Vertumnus, the Roman God of the Seasons, c. 1590-1, Skokloster Castle, Sweden.

Salvador Dalí, The Lugubrious Game, 1929, Private collection.

Salvador Dalí, The Lugubrious Game, 1929, Private collection.

Salvador Dalí, Metamorphosis of Narcissus, 1937, Tate Modern, London.

Salvador Dalí, Metamorphosis of Narcissus, 1937, Tate Modern, London.

Salvador Dalí, Mae West Lips Sofa, 1937. 

Salvador Dalí, Mae West Lips Sofa, 1937. 

Salvador Dalí, Inventions of the Monsters, 1937, Art Institute of Chicago. 

Salvador Dalí, Inventions of the Monsters, 1937, Art Institute of Chicago. 

René Magritte, The Empire of Lights, c. 1950–1954, Museum of Modern Art, New York. 

René Magritte, The Empire of Lights, c. 1950–1954, Museum of Modern Art, New York. 

René Magritte, This is not a pipe, The Treachery of Images, 1928–29, Los Angeles County Museum of Art.

René Magritte, This is not a pipe, The Treachery of Images, 1928–29, Los Angeles County Museum of Art.

René Magritte, The Lovers, 1928, Museum of Modern Art, New York. 

René Magritte, The Lovers, 1928, Museum of Modern Art, New York. 

René Magritte, The Human Condition, 1933, National Gallery of Art, Washington DC.

René Magritte, The Human Condition, 1933, National Gallery of Art, Washington DC.

René Magritte, On the Threshold of Liberty, 1937, Art Institute of Chicago.

René Magritte, On the Threshold of Liberty, 1937, Art Institute of Chicago.

Max Ernst, The Angel of the Fireplace or The Triumph of Surrealism, 1937, Private Collection.

Max Ernst, The Angel of the Fireplace or The Triumph of Surrealism, 1937, Private Collection.

Suprematism & Constructivism 

The Faces of Power

Nathan Altman, Portrait of Anna Akhmatova, 1914, State Russian Museum, St. Petersburg.

Nathan Altman, Portrait of Anna Akhmatova, 1914, State Russian Museum, St. Petersburg.

Marc Chagall, The Fiddler, 1912, Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam.  

Marc Chagall, The Fiddler, 1912, Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam.

 

Vladimir Tatlin, Lying Model, 1912, Russian State Archive of Literature and Art.

Vladimir Tatlin, Lying Model, 1912, Russian State Archive of Literature and Art.

El Lissitzky, Proun, c.1922, Museum of Modern Art, New York.   

El Lissitzky, Proun, c.1922, Museum of Modern Art, New York. 

 

Alexandra Exter, Sketch, 1924, Lobanov-Rostovsky Collection.

Alexandra Exter, Sketch, 1924, Lobanov-Rostovsky Collection.

Alexander Shevchenko, Wife’s Portrait, 1905, Karakalpak Museum of Arts.   

Alexander Shevchenko, Wife’s Portrait, 1905, Karakalpak Museum of Arts. 

 

Naum Gabo, Linear Construction No. 2, 1970-1, Tate Britain.

Naum Gabo, Linear Construction No. 2, 1970-1, Tate Britain.

Naum Gabo, Sketch for a Kinetic Construction, 1922, Tate Britain. 

Naum Gabo, Sketch for a Kinetic Construction, 1922, Tate Britain. 

Antoine Pevsner, Head, c.1923-4, Tate Britain. 

Antoine Pevsner, Head, c.1923-4, Tate Britain. 

Antoine Pevsner, Model for the Statue of Aphrodite in the Ballet 'La Chatte’, 1927, Tate Britain. 

Antoine Pevsner, Model for the Statue of Aphrodite in the Ballet 'La Chatte’, 1927, Tate Britain. 

Kazimir Malevich, The Knife Grinder (Principle of Glittering), 1913, Yale University Art Gallery.

Kazimir Malevich, The Knife Grinder (Principle of Glittering), 1913, Yale University Art Gallery.

Natalia Goncharova. Cyclist, 1913, The Russian Museum, St.Petersburg.  

Natalia Goncharova. Cyclist, 1913, The Russian Museum, St.Petersburg.

 

El Lissitzky, Victory Over the Sun (Poster), 1923. Caption reads: All is good was good is beginning and has not ended.

El Lissitzky, Victory Over the Sun (Poster), 1923. Caption reads: All is good was good is beginning and has not ended.

Alexander Rodchenko, Dance. An Objectless Composition, 1915.

Alexander Rodchenko, Dance. An Objectless Composition, 1915.

Kazimir Malevich, Self-Portrait, 1908, Tetyakov Gallery, Moscow.

Kazimir Malevich, Self-Portrait, 1908, Tetyakov Gallery, Moscow.

Kazimir Malevich, Party, 1908, Private Collection. 

Kazimir Malevich, Party, 1908, Private Collection. 

Kazimir Malevich, Bureau and Room, 1913, Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam.

Kazimir Malevich, Bureau and Room, 1913, Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam.

Kazimir Malevich, Suprematist Composition- White on White, 1918, Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Kazimir Malevich, Suprematist Composition- White on White, 1918, Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Kazimir Malevich, Suprematist Painting: Eight Red Rectangles, 1915, Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam.  

Kazimir Malevich, Suprematist Painting: Eight Red Rectangles, 1915, Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam.

 

Kazimir Malevich, Red Square: Painterly Realism of a Peasant Woman in Two Dimensions, 1915, State Russian Museum, St. Petersburg. 

Kazimir Malevich, Red Square: Painterly Realism of a Peasant Woman in Two Dimensions, 1915, State Russian Museum, St. Petersburg. 

Kazimir Malevich, Black Square, 1915, Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow.

Kazimir Malevich, Black Square, 1915, Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow.

Kazimir Malevich, Black Circle, 1915, State Russian Museum, St. Petersburg.

Kazimir Malevich, Black Circle, 1915, State Russian Museum, St. Petersburg.

Kazimir Malevich, Architekton Zeta, 1926.

Kazimir Malevich, Architekton Zeta, 1926.

El Lissitzky, Beat the Whites with the Red Wedge (Poster), 1919.   

El Lissitzky, Beat the Whites with the Red Wedge (Poster), 1919. 

 

El Lissitzky, Lenin Tribune, 1920. State Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow.

El Lissitzky, Lenin Tribune, 1920. State Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow.

El Lissitzky, Kestnermappe Proun, 1923, Berardo Collection Museum, Lisbon.

El Lissitzky, Kestnermappe Proun, 1923, Berardo Collection Museum, Lisbon.

El Lissitzky, A Proun, c.1925, Museum of Art, Rhode Island School of Design.

El Lissitzky, A Proun, c.1925, Museum of Art, Rhode Island School of Design.

Alexander Rodchenko, Photomontage for a Moscow Publisher, 1924. (Lilya Brik cries out ‘books’)

Alexander Rodchenko, Photomontage for a Moscow Publisher, 1924. (Lilya Brik cries out ‘books’)

Alexander Rodchenko, Dynamo Sports Club, 1935.

Alexander Rodchenko, Dynamo Sports Club, 1935.

Alexander Rodchenko, Ellipse or Oval Hanging Construction no.12, 1921.

Alexander Rodchenko, Ellipse or Oval Hanging Construction no.12, 1921.

Alexander Rodchenko, The Critic, Osip Brik, 1924.

Alexander Rodchenko, The Critic, Osip Brik, 1924.

Ivan Puni, Portrait of Artist's Wife, 1914, The Russian Museum, St. Petersburg.

Ivan Puni, Portrait of Artist's Wife, 1914, The Russian Museum, St. Petersburg.

Kazimir Malevich, Red-cavalry, 1928-1932.

Kazimir Malevich, Red-cavalry, 1928-1932.

Vladimir Tatlin, Monument to the Third International, 1919–20. (Never Completed).

Vladimir Tatlin, Monument to the Third International, 1919–20. (Never Completed).

Vladimir Tatlin, Corner Counter-Relief, 1914, State Russian Museum, St. Petersburg.

Vladimir Tatlin, Corner Counter-Relief, 1914, State Russian Museum, St. Petersburg.

Vladimir Tatlin, Letatlin, 1929-32, reconstruction of Jürgen Steger, 1991, Zeppelin Museum Friedrichshafen.

Vladimir Tatlin, Letatlin, 1929-32, reconstruction of Jürgen Steger, 1991, Zeppelin Museum Friedrichshafen.

Bauhaus & de Stijl

Trouble in Utopia

Walter Gropius, Bauhaus, 1925, Dessau

Walter Gropius, Bauhaus, 1925, Dessau

Walter Gropius, Fagus Factory, 1925, Alfeld, Germany.

Walter Gropius, Fagus Factory, 1925, Alfeld, Germany.

Alexander Schawinsky, Typewriter Olivetti Studio 42, 1936.

Alexander Schawinsky, Typewriter Olivetti Studio 42, 1936.

Marcel Breuer, Slatted Chair, 1924.

Marcel Breuer, Slatted Chair, 1924.

Walter Gropius and Adolf Meyer, Sommerfeld House, 1920-1922, Berlin.

Walter Gropius and Adolf Meyer, Sommerfeld House, 1920-1922, Berlin.

Josef Hartwig, Bauhaus chess set, 1923/24.

Josef Hartwig, Bauhaus chess set, 1923/24.

Johannes Itten, The Encounter, 1916, Kunsthaus Zürich.

Johannes Itten, The Encounter, 1916, Kunsthaus Zürich.

Joost Schmidt, Poster for the 1923 Bauhaus Exhibition in Weimar, 1923.

Joost Schmidt, Poster for the 1923 Bauhaus Exhibition in Weimar, 1923.

László Moholy-Nagy, Architecture (Eccentric Construction), c.1921, Guggenheim Museum, New York.

László Moholy-Nagy, Architecture (Eccentric Construction), c.1921, Guggenheim Museum, New York.

Herbert Bayer, Design for a newspaper kiosk, 1924.

Herbert Bayer, Design for a newspaper kiosk, 1924.

Marcel Breuer, Tubular steel armchair, 1925-26.

Marcel Breuer, Tubular steel armchair, 1925-26.

Wilhelm Wagenfeld and Carl Jakob Jucker, Table lamp MT 9, 1923-1924.

Wilhelm Wagenfeld and Carl Jakob Jucker, Table lamp MT 9, 1923-1924.

Marianne Brandt, Tea infuser (MT 49), 1924.

Marianne Brandt, Tea infuser (MT 49), 1924.

Theodor Bogler, Combination teapot with braided metal handle (L6), 1923.

Theodor Bogler, Combination teapot with braided metal handle (L6), 1923.

Frank Lloyd Wright, Imperial Hotel, 1923, Tokyo.

Frank Lloyd Wright, Imperial Hotel, 1923, Tokyo.

Frank Lloyd Wright, Fallingwater, 1937, Mill Run, Pennsylvania.

Frank Lloyd Wright, Fallingwater, 1937, Mill Run, Pennsylvania.

Frank Lloyd Wright, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, 1959, New York. 

Frank Lloyd Wright, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, 1959, New York. 

Iwao Yamawaki, Untitled, 1931, Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Iwao Yamawaki, Untitled, 1931, Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Iwao Yamawaki, Lunch (12–2 p.m.), 1931, The Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Iwao Yamawaki, Lunch (12–2 p.m.), 1931, The Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Iwao Yamawaki, Cafeteria after lunch, Bauhaus, Dessau, 1930-2.

Iwao Yamawaki, Cafeteria after lunch, Bauhaus, Dessau, 1930-2.

Gerrit Rietveld, Red and Blue Chair, 1917.

Gerrit Rietveld, Red and Blue Chair, 1917.

Theo van Doesburg, Neoplasticism: Composition VII (The Three Graces), 1917,  Mildred Lane Kemper Art Museum, St. Louis.

Theo van Doesburg, Neoplasticism: Composition VII (The Three Graces), 1917,  Mildred Lane Kemper Art Museum, St. Louis.

Piet Mondrian, Gray Tree, 1912, Municipal Museum, The Hague.

Piet Mondrian, Gray Tree, 1912, Municipal Museum, The Hague.

Georges Vantongerloo, Construction of Volumetric Interrelationships Derived from the Inscribed Square and the Square Circumscribed by a Circle, 1924, Guggenhein Museum, New York.

Georges Vantongerloo, Construction of Volumetric Interrelationships Derived from the Inscribed Square and the Square Circumscribed by a Circle, 1924, Guggenhein Museum, New York.

Theo van Doesburg, University Hall, 1923, Cornelis Van Easternern Collection, Amsterdam.  

Theo van Doesburg, University Hall, 1923, Cornelis Van Easternern Collection, Amsterdam.

 

Theo van Doesburg, Composition in Gray (Rag-time), 1919, Peggy Guggenheim Collection, Venice.

Theo van Doesburg, Composition in Gray (Rag-time), 1919, Peggy Guggenheim Collection, Venice.

Theo van Doesburg, Counter composition XIII, 1929, Peggy Guggenheim Collection, Venice.

Theo van Doesburg, Counter composition XIII, 1929, Peggy Guggenheim Collection, Venice.

Georges Vantongerloo, Composition 13478 / 15, 1937, Guggenheim Museum, New York.

Georges Vantongerloo, Composition 13478 / 15, 1937, Guggenheim Museum, New York.

Piet Mondrian, Summer, Dune in Zeeland, c.1910 Guggenheim Museum, New York.

Piet Mondrian, Summer, Dune in Zeeland, c.1910 Guggenheim Museum, New York.

Piet Mondrian, Tableau No. 2/Composition No. VII, 1913, Guggenheim Museum, New York.

Piet Mondrian, Tableau No. 2/Composition No. VII, 1913, Guggenheim Museum, New York.

Piet Mondrian, Composition, 1916, Guggenheim Museum, New York.

Piet Mondrian, Composition, 1916, Guggenheim Museum, New York.

Piet Mondrian, Tableau 2, 1922, Guggenheim Museum, New York.

Piet Mondrian, Tableau 2, 1922, Guggenheim Museum, New York.

Piet Mondrian, Ocean 5, 1914, Peggy Guggenheim Collection, Venice.

Piet Mondrian, Ocean 5, 1914, Peggy Guggenheim Collection, Venice.

Piet Mondrian, Victory Boogie Woogie, 1942–44, Municipal Museum, The Hague.

Piet Mondrian, Victory Boogie Woogie, 1942–44, Municipal Museum, The Hague.

Piet Mondrian, Evening; Red Tree, 1908–10, Municipal Museum, The Hague.  

Piet Mondrian, Evening; Red Tree, 1908–10, Municipal Museum, The Hague.

 

Abstract Expressionism

The View from the Edge

Caspar David Friedrich, Wanderer above the Sea of Fog, 1817, Kunsthalle Hamburg. 

Caspar David Friedrich, Wanderer above the Sea of Fog, 1817, Kunsthalle Hamburg. 

Thomas Cole, The Oxbow, View from Mount Holyoke, Northampton, Massachusetts, after a Thunderstorm, 1836, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

Thomas Cole, The Oxbow, View from Mount Holyoke, Northampton, Massachusetts, after a Thunderstorm, 1836, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

Albert Bierstadt, Among the Sierra Nevada Mountains, California, 1868, Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, DC.

Albert Bierstadt, Among the Sierra Nevada Mountains, California, 1868, Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, DC.

Frederic Church, Twilight in the Wilderness, 1860, Cleveland Museum of Art.

Frederic Church, Twilight in the Wilderness, 1860, Cleveland Museum of Art.

Frederic Church, Cotopaxi, 1855, Smithsonian American Art Museum.

Frederic Church, Cotopaxi, 1855, Smithsonian American Art Museum.

Frederic Church, Niagara Falls, 1857, National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC.

Frederic Church, Niagara Falls, 1857, National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC.

Thomas Moran, The Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone, 1893-1901, Smithsonian American Art Museum.

Thomas Moran, The Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone, 1893-1901, Smithsonian American Art Museum.

Fitzhugh Lane, Stage Fort across Gloucester Harbour, 1862, Metropolitan Museum, New York. 

Fitzhugh Lane, Stage Fort across Gloucester Harbour, 1862, Metropolitan Museum, New York. 

Martin Johnson Heade, Lake George, 1862, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

Martin Johnson Heade, Lake George, 1862, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

Fitzhugh Lane, Ship in Fog, Gloucester Harbour, c.1860, Princeton University Art Museum.

Fitzhugh Lane, Ship in Fog, Gloucester Harbour, c.1860, Princeton University Art Museum.

Frederic Church, Morning in the Tropics, c.1858, The Walters Art Museum, Baltimore.

Frederic Church, Morning in the Tropics, c.1858, The Walters Art Museum, Baltimore.

Fitzhugh Lane, Brace's Rock, Eastern Point, Gloucester, c.1864, National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC.

Fitzhugh Lane, Brace's Rock, Eastern Point, Gloucester, c.1864, National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC.

Georgia O'Keeffe, Pineapple Bud, 1939, Honolulu Academy of Arts.

Georgia O'Keeffe, Pineapple Bud, 1939, Honolulu Academy of Arts.

Georgia O'Keeffe, Black Place, Grey and Pink, 1949, Georgia O'Keeffe Museum, Santa Fe.

Georgia O'Keeffe, Black Place, Grey and Pink, 1949, Georgia O'Keeffe Museum, Santa Fe.

Georgia O'Keeffe, Ram's Head White Hollyhock and Little Hills, 1935, The Brooklyn Museum.

Georgia O'Keeffe, Ram's Head White Hollyhock and Little Hills, 1935, The Brooklyn Museum.

Georgia O'Keeffe, Pedernal, 1941-1942, Georgia O'Keeffe Museum, Santa Fe. 

Georgia O'Keeffe, Pedernal, 1941-1942, Georgia O'Keeffe Museum, Santa Fe. 

Georgia O'Keeffe, From the River – Pale, 1959, Georgia O'Keeffe Museum, Santa Fe. 

Georgia O'Keeffe, From the River – Pale, 1959, Georgia O'Keeffe Museum, Santa Fe. 

Georgia O'Keeffe, Black Iris, 1926, Metropolitan Museum, New York. 


Georgia O'Keeffe, Black Iris, 1926, Metropolitan Museum, New York. 

Wassily Kandinsky, Untitled (First Abstract Watercolor), 1910, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris.

Wassily Kandinsky, Untitled (First Abstract Watercolor), 1910, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris.

Wassily Kandinsky, Squares with Concentric Circles, 1913, Lenbachhaus, Munich.

Wassily Kandinsky, Squares with Concentric Circles, 1913, Lenbachhaus, Munich.

Wassily Kandinsky, Circles in a Circle, 1923, Philadelphia Museum of Art. 

Wassily Kandinsky, Circles in a Circle, 1923, Philadelphia Museum of Art. 

Wassily Kandinsky, On White II, 1923, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris.

Wassily Kandinsky, On White II, 1923, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris.

Wassily Kandinsky, Composition VII, 1913, Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow.

Wassily Kandinsky, Composition VII, 1913, Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow.

Jackson Pollock, Number 7, 1950, Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Jackson Pollock, Number 7, 1950, Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Jackson Pollock, Free Form, 1946, Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Jackson Pollock, Free Form, 1946, Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Jackson Pollock, Untitled, 1945, Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Jackson Pollock, Untitled, 1945, Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Jackson Pollock, Untitled, c.1951, Museum of Modern Art, New York. 

Jackson Pollock, Untitled, c.1951, Museum of Modern Art, New York. 

Jackson Pollock, Full Fathom Five, 1947, Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Jackson Pollock, Full Fathom Five, 1947, Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Jackson Pollock, Number 1A, 1948, Museum of Modern Art, New York. 

Jackson Pollock, Number 1A, 1948, Museum of Modern Art, New York. 

Jackson Pollock, Number 1 (Lavender Mist), 1950, National Gallery of Art, Washington DC.

Jackson Pollock, Number 1 (Lavender Mist), 1950, National Gallery of Art, Washington DC.

Jackson Pollock, Number 5, 1948, Private Collection.

Jackson Pollock, Number 5, 1948, Private Collection.

Jackson Pollock, Autumn Rhythm (Number 30), 1950, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. 

Jackson Pollock, Autumn Rhythm (Number 30), 1950, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. 

Jackson Pollock, Blue Poles, 1952, National Gallery of Australia, Canberra.

Jackson Pollock, Blue Poles, 1952, National Gallery of Australia, Canberra.

Giovanni Tiepolo, Juno and Luna, 1735-1745, Museum of Fine Arts, Houston.

Giovanni Tiepolo, Juno and Luna, 1735-1745, Museum of Fine Arts, Houston.

Giovanni Tiepolo, Rinaldo Enchanted by Armida, 1742-1745, Art Institute of Chicago.

Giovanni Tiepolo, Rinaldo Enchanted by Armida, 1742-1745, Art Institute of Chicago.

Willem de Kooning, Woman V, 1952–53, National Gallery of Australia, Canberra.

Willem de Kooning, Woman V, 1952–53, National Gallery of Australia, Canberra.

Willem de Kooning, Painting, 1948, Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Willem de Kooning, Painting, 1948, Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Willem de Kooning, Excavation, 1950, Art Institute of Chicago.

Willem de Kooning, Excavation, 1950, Art Institute of Chicago.

Willem de Kooning, Interchange, 1955, Private Collection.

Willem de Kooning, Interchange, 1955, Private Collection.

Robert Motherwell, Iberia No. II, 1958, Tate Modern, London. 

Robert Motherwell, Iberia No. II, 1958, Tate Modern, London. 

Robert Motherwell, Elegy to the Spanish Republic No. 110, 1971, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York.

Robert Motherwell, Elegy to the Spanish Republic No. 110, 1971, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York.

Robert Motherwell, Untitled, 1963, Honolulu Museum of Art.

Robert Motherwell, Untitled, 1963, Honolulu Museum of Art.

Clyfford Still, 1957-D No. 1, 1957, Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo.

Clyfford Still, 1957-D No. 1, 1957, Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo.

Clyfford Still, Jamais, 1944, Peggy Guggenhein Museum, Venice. 

Clyfford Still, Jamais, 1944, Peggy Guggenhein Museum, Venice. 

Clyfford Still, 1948, 1948, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York.

Clyfford Still, 1948, 1948, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York.

Clyfford Still, PH-1074, 1956, Clyfford Still Museum, Denver. 

Clyfford Still, PH-1074, 1956, Clyfford Still Museum, Denver. 

Clyfford Still, PH-129, 1949, Clyfford Still Museum, Denver. 

Clyfford Still, PH-129, 1949, Clyfford Still Museum, Denver. 

Mark Rothko, No. 3/No. 13, 1949, Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Mark Rothko, No. 3/No. 13, 1949, Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Mark Rothko, No. 61 (Rust and Blue), 1953, Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles.

Mark Rothko, No. 61 (Rust and Blue), 1953, Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles.

Mark Rothko, No. 14 (Horizontals, White over Darks), 1961, Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Mark Rothko, No. 14 (Horizontals, White over Darks), 1961, Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Barnett Newman, Onement 1, 1948, Museum of Modern Art, New York. 

Barnett Newman, Onement 1, 1948, Museum of Modern Art, New York. 

Barnett Newman, Dionysius, 1949, National Gallery of Art, Washington DC. 

Barnett Newman, Dionysius, 1949, National Gallery of Art, Washington DC. 

Barnett Newman, Eve, 1950, Tate Modern, London. 

Barnett Newman, Eve, 1950, Tate Modern, London. 

Barnett Newman, Cathedra magna, 1951, Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam.

Barnett Newman, Cathedra magna, 1951, Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam.

Barnett Newman, Vir Heroicus Sublimis (Man, Heroic and Sublime), 1950-51, Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Barnett Newman, Vir Heroicus Sublimis (Man, Heroic and Sublime), 1950-51, Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Paul Klee, Red Balloon, 1922, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York.

Paul Klee, Red Balloon, 1922, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York.

Paul Klee, Senecio, 1922, Kunstmuseum, Basel.

Paul Klee, Senecio, 1922, Kunstmuseum, Basel.

Paul Klee, Fire at Full Moon, 1933, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

Paul Klee, Fire at Full Moon, 1933, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

Paul Klee, May Picture, 1925, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. 

Paul Klee, May Picture, 1925, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. 

Mark Rothko, Ochre and Red on Red, 1954, Phillips Collection, Washington, DC. 

Mark Rothko, Ochre and Red on Red, 1954, Phillips Collection, Washington, DC. 

Mark Rothko, Untitled, 1949, National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC.

Mark Rothko, Untitled, 1949, National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC.

Mark Rothko, White Center, 1950, Private Collection.

Mark Rothko, White Center, 1950, Private Collection.

Mark Rothko, Untitled, 1968, Private Collection.

Mark Rothko, Untitled, 1968, Private Collection.

Mark Rothko, Untitled, 1969, Private Collection.

Mark Rothko, Untitled, 1969, Private Collection.

Mark Rothko, Rothko Chapel, 1971, Houston. 

Mark Rothko, Rothko Chapel, 1971, Houston. 

Copyright © 2016, Toby Slade. All rights reserved.